Art of Breathing

Nearly all medical practitioners consider good breathing habits to be essential components of health. Unfortunately, the most people have poor breathing habits. They take shallow breaths, only use a portion of their lungs, even when they believe they are taking deep breaths, and hold their breath–especially when they become nervous or tense.

Breathing well is vitally important to your health. No other health practice is capable of producing such dramatic and life-changing results, for the amount of effort put in, as the conscious practice of learning to breathe with your entire body in a relaxed, circular manner, without holding your breath. Breathing with the whole body has been used for millennia to enhance the ability to dissolve and release energy blockages in the mind/body, enhancing well-being and spiritual awareness.

Pranayama, is the name for “the science of breath control”. It consists of series of exercises especially intended to meet the body’s needs and keep it in vibrant health. Pranayama comes from the following words:

Prana – “life force” or “life energy”
Yama – “discipline” or “control”
Ayama – “expansion”, “non-restraint”, or “extension


Thus, Pranayama means “breathing techniques” or “breath control”. Ideally, this practice of opening up the inner life force is not merely to take healthy deep breaths. It is intended for yoga practitioners to help and prepare them in their Meditation process. Proper breathing helps you create and stabilize a strong, steady breathing pattern that will mitigate excessive emotional swings. It retrains your nervous system to relax and make your thoughts smoother and more comfortable. Studying your breathing patterns can make you aware of the ways your moods and emotions change.

For example, fear tends to produce erratic, strained or weak breathing patterns. Holding the breath is often a preceded by violent, angry explosions. Likewise, holding the breath without realizing it is part of a reaction to stress and tends to increase its severity. Shallow breathing makes people prone to lung weaknesses in the face of environmental problems, such as polluted air, and can also lead to depression.

In our respiration process, we breathe in or inhale oxygen into our body, going through our body systems in a form of energy to charge our different body parts. Then we exhale carbon dioxide and take away all toxic wastes from our body. Through the practice of Pranayama, the balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide is attained. Absorbing prana through breath control links our body, mind, and spirit.

But life is full of stress. Because of the daily work, family, or financial pressures, we tend to ignore our breathing. Thus, it tends to be fast and shallow. The use of only a fraction of your lungs results to lack of oxygen and may lead to different complications. Heart diseases, sleep disorders, and fatigue are some of the effects of oxygen starvation. Therefore, the negative energy of being restless and troublesome leads to lesser prana inside the body. By practicing deep and systematic breathing through Pranayama, we reenergize our body.

According to Traditional Chinese Medicine, the ability of your breathing to improve the functioning of your internal organs–liver, kidneys, heart, spleen and lungs–is as valuable as increasing oxygen intake. Proper breathing methods transfer the pressure from air coming into the lungs to the internal organs, especially the heart. This provides a gentle yet firm massage for the organs while increasing blood and chi flow that helps to optimize their natural range of movement.

When the range of motion of your internal organs diminish, blood flow to your internal organs also diminishes, blocking the smooth flow of energy. Other effects include the gradual shortening of your ligaments and restricted movement of your organs. Bodily functions will gradually weaken and disease will eventually strike

 

Breathing is a normal part of our life, though we fail to pay attention to it. It is an autonomic function of the body that we perform even without concentrating on it. Why then do we have to learn yoga breathing? Here are some reasons why Pranayama is important:

Pranayama teaches us the proper way to breathe. We became used to breathing from our chest, using only a fraction of the lungs, not knowing that this unhealthy and unnatural way of inhaling may lead to several complications. With yoga breathing, we increase the capacity of our lungs, bringing more oxygen supply to the body to function well. We learn how to breathe slowly and deeply – the right way.
Pranayama reduces the toxins and body wastes from within our body. It prevents one from acquiring diseases.
Pranayama helps in one’s digestion. With the proper way of breathing, one’s metabolism and health condition will start to improve.
Pranayama develops our concentration and focus. It fights away stress and relaxes the body. Controlling one’s breathing also results to serenity and peace of mind.
Pranayama offers a better self-control. Through concentration, one can better handle temper and reactions. Mind can function clearly, avoiding arguments and wrong decisions. Moreover, self-control also involves control over one’s physical body.
Pranayama leads to spiritual journey through a relaxed body and mind.

However, Pranayama should not be forced and done without proper preparation, or it may lead to nervous breakdowns. It is part of a process in yoga. Breath control is a spiritual practice of cleansing the mind and body which should be done appropriately and with proper guidance and preparation.

the science of breath control, consist a series of exercises intended to meet these needs and to keep the body in vibrant health.
Proper Breathing in a Yogic point of view is to bring more oxygen to the blood and to the brain, and to control prana or the vital life energy.
These techniques have also proved to help the prevention of major diseases and cure minor illnesses.
Breathing is important for two basic reasons.
It is the only means of supplying our bodies and its various organs with oxygen which is vital for our health.

Breathing is one of the ways to get rid of waste products and toxins from our body.
Why Oxygen is so vital?
Oxygen is the most vital nutrient in our bodies.

It is essential for the proper and efficient functioning of the brain, nerves, Glands and other internal organs.

We can survive without food for weeks and without water for days, but without oxygen we will die within a few minutes.

If the brain does not get proper supply of this essential nutrient, it will cause degradation of all the vital organs of the body.

The brain requires more oxygen than any other organ. If it doesn’t get enough, the result is mental sluggishness, negative thoughts, depression and, eventually, vision and hearing declines. Oxygen supply in our body, however, declines as we get older and if we live a poor lifestyle.
Oxygen purifies the blood stream
One of the major secrets of energy and rejuvenation is a purified blood stream. The quickest and most effective way to purify the blood stream is by taking in extra supplies of oxygen from the air we breathe. The Breathing Exercises described in this website are the most effective methods ever devised for saturating the blood with extra oxygen. So here are a few things about what oxygen do to our body:
Oxygen recharges the body’s batteries (the solar plexus).

Most of our energy requirements come, not from food, but from the air we breathe.

By purifying the blood stream, every part of the body benefits, as well as the mind.

Rejuvenation of the skin will start to occur.

Scientists have discovered that the chemical basis of energy production in the body is a chemical called Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). If something goes wrong with the production of ATP, the result is lowered vitality, disease and premature aging.

Scientists have also discovered that oxygen is critical for the production of ATP; in fact, it is in fact its most vital component.

The work done at Baylor University in the USA has shown that you can reverse Arterial Disease in monkeys by infusing oxygen into the diseased arteries.

Yoga permits us to tap into this vital nutrient.
Importance of Healthy Breathing
We know how to breathe. It is something that occurs automatically, spontaneously, and naturally. We are breathing even when we are not aware of it. So it seems foolish to think that one can be told how to breathe. Yet, one’s breathing becomes modified and restricted in various ways, not just momentarily but habitually. We develop unhealthy habits without being aware of it. For example:
We tend to assume positions such as slouching that diminishes lung capacity to function properly, which result to shortened breaths.

We also live in social conditions that are not good for the health of our Respiratory System.

A normally sedentary person, when confronted with a perplexing problem, tends to lean forward, draw his arms together, and bend his head down. All these body postures result to reduced lung capacity. However, we also tend to have some bad habits that affect our breathing and here are a few reasons.

As our duties, responsibilities and their attendant problems become more demanding; we develop habits of forgetting to breathe.

The more we concentrate on something, the tenser the muscles become. This leads to the contraction of the muscles in your arms, neck and chest.

The muscles that move the thorax and control inhalation and muscular tenseness clamp down and restrict the exhalation.

The breaths become shorter and shorter.

After an extended period of intense focusing, the whole system seems to be frozen in a certain posture.

We become fatigued from the decreased circulation of blood and from the decreased availability of oxygen for the blood because we have almost stopped breathing.

Try an experiment suggested by Swami Vishnudevananda:

Focus attention upon the ticks of a clock placed at a distance of about twelve feet.

If you get distracted, try concentrating harder until you experience the ticking with undivided attention.

If you fail at first, you should try again and again until you succeed in keeping the ticking clearly in mind for at least a few seconds.

What happened? The majority of persons who took part in this experiment reported that they have completely suspended the breath. The others, who concentrated less, reported that they experienced very slow breathing.

This experiment shows clearly that where there is concentration of the mind, the breathing becomes very slow or even gets suspended temporarily.
What’s Wrong with the Way We Breathe?
Our breathing is too shallow and too quick.

We are not taking in sufficient oxygen and we are not eliminating sufficient carbon dioxide. As a result, our bodies are oxygen starved, and a toxic build-up occurs. Every cell in the body requires oxygen and our level of vitality is just a product of the health of all the cells.

Shallow breathing does not exercise the lungs enough, so they lose some of their function, causing a further reduction in vitality.

Animals which breathe slowly live the longest; the elephant is a good example. We need to breathe more slowly and deeply.

Quick shallow breathing results in oxygen starvation which leads to reduced vitality, premature ageing, poor immune system and a myriad of other factors.
Why Is Our Breath Fast and Shallow?
There are several reasons why our breath becomes fast and shallow. The major reasons are:
We are in a hurry most of the time. Our movements and breathing follow this pattern.

The increasing stress of modern living makes us breathe more quickly and less deeply.

We get too emotional too easily.

We get easily excited or angry, and most of the time, we suffer from Anxiety due to worry.
These negative emotional states affect the rate of breathing, causing it to be fast and shallow. On the other hand here are some other reasons due to unknown wrong breathing habit.
Modern technology and automation reduces our need for physical activity. There is less need to breathe deeply, so we develop the shallow breathing habit.

We are working indoors more and more. This increases our exposure to pollution. As a result, the body instinctively inhales less air to protect itself from pollution.

The body just takes in enough air to tick over.
As we go through life, these bad breathing habits we picked up become part of our lives. Unless we do something to reverse these habits, we can suffer permanent problems. The good news is that these are reversible. The bad news is that before we can change these habits, we should recognize and accept that our behavior needs to be changed. This means that we see for ourselves the benefits of good Breathing Techniques.

Certainly, Yoga is not the only way to cope with stress and the resultant drop of oxygen supply in the brain brought on by constricted breathing. Smoking, taking a coffee break, going to the restroom, or a good laugh may all result into some readjustment of constricted breathing patterns. These can be thought of as “mini yoga”, we can benefit by taking or seeking more breaks, trips or jokes. But people whose occupations continue to be highly stressful, something more will be needed. Deep Breathing Exercises and stretching of muscles, especially those primarily concerned with controlling inhalation and exhalation, should be sought. Participation in active sports will also be useful. Going for a walk is very good. For those experiencing restricted breathing at night, morning exercises should be actively pursued.

The Effects of Shallow Breathing
Shallow breathing can result to:
Reduced vitality, since oxygen is essential for the production of energy in the body

Susceptibility to diseases. Our resistance to disease is reduced since oxygen is essential for healthy cells. This means we catch more Colds and develop other ailments more easily.

With our ‘normal’ sedentary way of living, we only use about one tenth of our total lung capacity. This is sufficient to survive and just tick over, but not sufficient for a high vitality level, long life and high resistance to disease.

Poor oxygen supply affects all parts of the body. When an acute circulation blockage deprives the heart of oxygen, this will result to heart attack while a stroke is the result of poor oxygen supply in the brain.

Scientists have known for a long time that there exists a strong connection between Respiration and Mental States. Improper breathing produces diminished mental ability. The outcome is true also. It is known that mental tensions produce restricted breathing.

Some research made regarding various heart diseases and cancer due to lack of oxygen supply in the body.

For a long time, lack of oxygen has been considered a major cause of cancer. Even way back as 1947, a study done in Germany showed that when oxygen was withdrawn, normal body cells could turn into cancer cells.

Similar research has been done with heart disease. It showed that lack of oxygen is a major cause of heart disease, Stroke and cancer.

Modem science agrees with the Ancient Yogis on the subject of shallow breathing.

An editorial in the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine suggested that fast, shallow breathing can cause: Fatigue, sleep disorders, Anxiety, stomach upsets, heartburn, gas, muscle cramps, dizziness, visual problems, chest pain and heart palpitations.

Scientists have also found that a lot of people who believe they have Heart Disease are really suffering from improper breathing.

Old people and those whose arteries are clogged often become senile and vague because the supply of oxygen towards the brain is reduced. They get irritated very quickly.

People who have sedentary jobs and spend most of the day in offices have oxygen starved brains and their bodies are just ‘getting by’. They feel tired, nervous, Iirritable, and are not very productive. On top of that, they sleep badly at night so they get a bad start for the next day and this cycle continues.

This situation also lowers their immune system, making them susceptible to catching Colds, flu and other Allergies.
Importance of Breathing through the Nose
The first rule for correct breathing is that we should breathe through the nose.

This may seem obvious, but many people breathe principally through the mouth.

Mouth breathing can adversely affect the development of the Thyroid Gland, and can retard the mental development of children.

Pathogens can also enter the lungs through mouth breathing that makes it impossible to be healthy. It is easy to break the habit of breathing through the mouth. Just keep your mouth closed and you will automatically breathe through your nose.

The nose has various defense mechanisms to prevent impurities and excessively cold air entering the body.

At the entrance to the nose, a screen of hairs traps dust, tiny insects and other particles that may injure the lungs if you breathe through the mouth.

After the entrance of the nose, there is a long winding passage lined with mucus membranes, where excessively cool air is warmed and very fine dust particles that escaped the hair screen are caught.

In the inner nose are glands which fight off any bacilli which have slipped through the other defenses. The inner nose also contains the olfactory organ-our sense of smell. This detects any poisonous gases around that may injure our health.

The Yogis believe that the olfactory organ has another function: the absorption of Prana from the air.

If you breathe through the mouth all the time, as many people do, you are cheating yourself of all this free energy (Prana).

The Yogis say this is a major factor in lowered resistance to disease and impairs the functioning of your vital glands and nervous system.

The Ancient Yogis knew the importance of correct breathing and developed techniques not only to increase Health and life span, but also to attain super conscious states.

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Techniques

High Breathing

High Breathing refers to what takes place primarily in the upper part of the chest and lungs. This has been called “Clavicular Breathing” or “Collarbone Breathing” and involves raising the ribs, collarbone and shoulders. Persons with Asthma, a tight belt, a full stomach or who otherwise become short of breath tend to resort to high breathing. One may deliberately draw in his abdomen and force its contents upward against the diaphragm and into the chest cavity in order to cause High Breathing. High Breathing is naturally shallow and a larger percentage of it fails to reach the alveoli and enter into useable gaseous exchange.
This is the least desirable form of breathing since the upper lobes of the lungs are used and these have only a small air capacity. Also the upper rib cage is fairly rigid, so not much expansion of the ribs can take place. A great deal of Muscular energy is expended in pressing against the diaphragm and in keeping the ribs and shoulders raised abnormally high. This form of breathing is quite common, especially among Women, probably because they often wear tight clothes around the waist which prevents the far superior abdominal breathing. It’s a common cause of digestive, stomach, constipation and gynecological problems.

Low Breathing

Low breathing refers to what takes place primarily in the lower part of the chest and lungs. It is far more effective than high or mid breathing. It consists mainly in moving the abdomen in and out and in changing the position of the diaphragm through such movements. Because of this, it is sometimes called “Abdominal Breathing” and “Diaphragmic Breathing.” Sedentary persons who habitually bend forward while they read or write tend to slump into low breathing. Whenever one slouches or slackens his shoulder and chest muscles, he normally adopts low breathing. We often use low breathing when sleeping. But whenever we become physically active, as in walking, running or lifting, we are likely to find abdominal breathing inadequate for our needs. To do low breathing, when you inhale you push the stomach gently forwards with no strain. When exhaling you allow the stomach to return to its normal position.

This Type of Breathing is far superior to high or mid breathing for four reasons: (1) more air is taken in when inhaling, due to greater movement of the lungs and the fact that the lower lobes of the lungs have a larger capacity than the upper lobes; (2) the diaphragm acts like a second Heart. Its piston-like movements expand the base of the lungs, allowing them to suck in more venous blood- the increase in the venous circulation improves the general Circulation; (3) the abdominal organs are massaged by the up and down movements of the diaphragm; and (4) low breathing has a beneficial effect on the solar plexus, a very important nerve center.

Middle Breathing

Middle Breathing is a little harder to describe since the limits of variability are more indefinite. Yet, it is breathing in which mainly the middle parts of the lungs are filled with air. It exhibits some of the characteristics of both high breathing, since the ribs rise and the chest expands somewhat, and low breathing, since the diaphragm moves up and down and the abdomen in and out a little. It has been called Thoracic or Intercoastal or Rib Breathing. But too often it also remains a shallow type of breathing. With this form of breathing, the ribs and chest are expanded sideways. This is better than high breathing, but far inferior to low breathing and the Yoga Complete Breath Technique.

The Complete Breath

Most of us use three or four Kinds of Breathing. These may be called high, low and middle breathing and complete breathing. The complete breath is a combination of high breathing, mid breathing and low breathing.

The Complete Breath, as defined by Yoga, involves the entire Respiratory System and not only includes the portions of the lungs used in high, low and middle breathing, but expands the lungs so as to take in more air than the amounts inhaled by all of these Three Kinds of Breathing together when they are employed in shallow breathing. The complete breath is not just deep breathing; it is the deepest possible breathing. Not only does one raise his shoulders, collarbone and ribs, as in high breathing, and also extend his abdomen and lower his diaphragm, as in low breathing, but he does both as much as is needed to expand his lungs to their fullest capacity.

The Yoga Complete Breath is the basic technique of all the different types of Yoga Breathing, and therefore should be mastered before you learn the specific breathing exercises. It brings the whole lung capacity into play and is the basis of the three specific breathing exercises. Keep in mind that this Type of Breathing is only done when you do the breathing exercises. The rest of the time you should be doing low breathing by pushing the stomach out slightly when you inhale, and then just letting the stomach fall back to its original position when you exhale. Also, make sure you are breathing through your nose and not your mouth.

Yogic Breathing

(look these up if you are unsure how to do Any of these techniques)

Kapalabhati Kapalabhati
Kapalabhati is a Breathing Technique used specifically for cleansing. If you have a lot of mucus in the air passages or feel tension and blockages in the chest it is often helpful to breathe quickly.
Anuloma Viloma Anuloma Viloma
Anuloma Viloma is also called the Alternate Nostril Breathing Technique. In this Breathing Technique, you inhale through one nostril, retain the breath, and exhale through the other nostril.
Brahmari Brahmari
Bhramari or Nasal Snoring is more difficult than the usual mouth snoring. But with with enough practice and patience, you will eventually be able to perform this technique.
Sitkari Sitkari
Sitkari pertains to the sound made by drawing air in through the front teeth-either tightly closed or slightly opened-with the tongue tip regulating the air pressure and sound.
Sithali Sithali
The breathing technique Sitali or tongue hissing refers to the sound caused when air is drawn in through the protruding tongue folded into a tube.

Advanced Yogic Breathing

Introduction
Bandha is a Sanskrit word related to our English words “band,” “bind,” “bond” and “bound.” Each of the Bandha employed for prolonging breathing pauses binds air in our lungs or closes and locks the air channels so that no air can escape or enter. This article will give you an overview of the Three Important Bandhas.

Jalandhara Bandha Jalandhara Bandha
Jalandhara Bandha or “chin lock” involves pressing the chin close to the chest and dropping the head to help in maintaining immobility of muscle and air movements. It may be a difficult technique to pull off in the beginning but with enough practice, you will be able to do it effortlessly.

Uddiyana Uddiyana Bandha
Uddiyana Bandha, involves raising the diaphragm and keeping it immobile during an empty pause. The abdomen must be drawn in and up as far as possible. Sure it sounds difficult, so don’t hurry up in trying to excute perfectly on your first try. Learn how to do it correctly…

Moola Bandha Moola Bandha
Those who practice Moola Bandha receive a variety of benefits by doing so like lessening the effects of ailments such as asthma and arthritis. Aside from that, it can also be a great way of relieving depression. Those are just some of the positive effects that you can get by practicing it.

Ujjayi Breathing Ujjayi
According to the ancient yogic text, Ujjayi can help protect you from a host of diseases by getting rid of excess phlegm, wind or bile.

Surya Bheda Surya Bheda
Surya means sun, referring to the right nostril which is the path of the Pingala Nadi. When you inhale solely through this nostril, heat is created in the body and the impurities that blocks the flow of Prana are dispelled. You may start your practice by repeating Surya Bhedana ten times and slowly build up a to forty.

Bhastrika Bhastrika
Bhastrika is primarily consists of forced rapid deep breathing which serves as a basis for many varieties of exercises, all of which may be described by the same name. Although air is forced both in and out, the emphasis is placed upon the expulsion or explosion of air.

Samanu Samanu
Samanu is an advanced practice for purifying the nadis that combines pranayama with chakra visualization and japa on the bija mantras of air, fire, moon and earth. 
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